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Repeated Questions of Forestry

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  • Repeated Questions of Forestry

    Repeated Questions of Forestry

    TYPES OF FORESTS
    • Name various Forest Types of Pakistan. Describe in some detail the one which, in your opinion, has utmost watershed value. What changes shall you propose for its betterment? (2000)
    • Short notes: Normal Forest (2003), (2008)
    • What are different temperate zones of Pakistan ? Relate different forest types of Pakistan to these temperature zones. Give correct binomial nomenclature of major species representing each forest type in this respect. (2005)
    • Rive rain forests were at one time considered to be inexhaustible natural wood mines with remarkably high growth rate. What has gone wrong with thee forests and what remedial measures of practical significance do you propose for rescuing and promoting these? (2006)
    • Describe Tidal Swamp Forest with respect to its distribution, locality factors and floristic composition. Give botanical names of major species of this forest. (2007)
    SILVICULTURE
    • Define Silviculture. Enlist various silvicultural operations. Briefly explain that operation which yields maximum intermediate income. (2000)
    • Explain single stem silvicultural system. Give suggestions for effective silvicultural management of Juniper forests.(2001)
    • What silvicultural measures do you propose for rejuvenating and extending dry temperate forests of Baluchistan ? (2002)
    • What is meant by Forest Thinning? What is its silvicultural and economic importance? (2003)
    • Length of a Felling Cycle is determined by Silvicultural and Economic parameters. Discuss each one with respect to Conifer forests. (2004)
    • What silvicultural practices are important for improved growth, at what stage and how various environmental factors help/affect those practices? (2009)
    • Effects of silvicultural activity of eucalyptus trees on ecological processes in irrigated forests ,the Punjab, Pakistan? (2010)
    ECOLOGY
    • Briefly describe general characteristic features of various ecological factors influencing forest tree growth (2002)
    • Effects of silvicultural activity of eucalyptus trees on ecological processes in irrigated forests ,the Punjab, Pakistan? (2010)
    MENSURATION
    • What do you know about Forest Mensuration? Describe various methods for calculating true volume of standing tree. (2001)
    • Short notes:Mensuration (2003)
    • lise of satellite in forest mensuration (2010)
    RESEARCH METHOD
    • Define research. What is the importance of experimental design in research? Write the main components of a research paper. (2009)
    • Discuss steps in managing water resources for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture Pakistan. Design a community-based watershed management support project. Explain complementary role of research and teaching in Courses Dealing with Integrated Watershed management. (2010)
    FOREST MANAGEMENT
    • What are the Principles of Forest Management? How shall you ensure sustained production and how shall you increase production potential? (2000)
    • Discuss problems of coniferous Forests of Pakistan. Also give suggestions for suitable management of these forests. (2001)
    • Short notes: Management Tables for Farm Grown Trees (2003)

    IRRIGATION

    • Discuss steps in managing water resources for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture Pakistan. Design a community-based watershed management support project. Explain complementary role of research and teaching in Courses Dealing with Integrated Watershed management. (2010)
    • Justify existence of Irrigated Plantations in view of decreasing land and water resources. (2007)
    • Short notes: Management of water resources for sustainable agriculture in Pakistan (2010)
    ECONOMICS
    • Suggest suitable strategic measures separately for a). improving productivity, b). enhancing economic viability cum profitability and c) ensuring a secure future for man-made irrigated forests plantations of Pakistan. (2002)
    • Forest resources are important for countries like Pakistan with a n agro-based economy. Discuss in detail these resources keeping in view soils and rainfall regime in Pakistan. Also give an account awareness programs run by NGOs or public sectors to conserve and preserve these resources. (2010)
    WATER SHED MANAGEMENT
    • Name various Forest Types of Pakistan. Describe in some detail the one which, in your opinion, has utmost watershed value. What changes shall you propose for its betterment? (2000)
    • Describe the role of Northern Mountain Watershed region in alleviating the present water crisis in the country. (2001)
    • What does Watershed Management mean? How can Crop Farming, Fruit Orchards, Timber Forestry, Grazing Grasslands and Managing Wildlife Parks be made compatible with it? Is conventional Watershed Management possible in northern reaches of Indus River? Discuss. (2006)
    • Judicious Watershed Management may help overcome water and power crisis in the country. Please justify with arguments. (2008)
    • Differentiate between catchment and watershed. How the range lands in watershed region can be managed to ensure increased quantity and improved quality of water in Pakistan? (2009)
    • Discuss steps in managing water resources for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture Pakistan. Design a community-based watershed management support project. Explain complementary role of research and teaching in Courses Dealing with Integrated Watershed management. (2010)
    • Short notes: Micro watershed (2010)
    • Judicious Watershed Management may help overcome water and power crisis in the country. Please justify with arguments. (2008)
    RANGE LAND & RANGE MANAGEMENT
    • What do you mean by scientific/commercial Range Management? Why has it not taken roots in Pakistan so far? (2001)
    • Why raising of range livestock has not taken roots as an industry (as opposed to poultry industry) in Pothowar tract which is considered a high potential range area ? (2002)
    • Enlist four basic Principles of Range management. Describe in detail one of the principles, which you would prefer to apply to increase forage production in the Range land areas of Baluchistan. (2004)
    • Define Retrogression. In what way this parameter would guide a Range Land Manager to take timely action for improvement of the Range Land. (2004)
    • Proper management and use of resources in a given range are based on four important fundamental criteria. Describe the same in detail with respect to range areas in Cholistan desert (2005)
    • Define range condition. Analyze range condition by drawing a relationship between grazing intensity and percent plant composition by using your own hypothetical data. (2005)
    • Heavy grazing and other factors have resulted in the loss of valuable natural vegetation in the Cholistan desert. Suggest measures that you would take to improve Range land for increasing forage production. (2007)
    • Name the most productive Range land of Pakistan. Describe its carrying capacity, rainfall, topography, vegetation and constraints. (2008)
    • Differentiate between catchment and watershed. How the range lands in watershed region can be managed to ensure increased quantity and improved quality of water in Pakistan? (2009)
    • Livestock provides with many services to the mankind. Evaluate status of grazing animals of range lands in Pakistan. Discuss problems of grazers in these land and measures to overcome the problems in enhancing livestock production. What are prospects of increasing agro-grazing in Punjab, Pakistan. (2010)
    • Short notes: Principle of range management (2010)
    • How are various range components related to each other? Briefly point out various losses of energy from range ecosystem and also write a note on corrective measures with reference to energy losses from a range ecosystem. (2011)

    FOREST SURVEYING
    • Short notes:Chain/triangular survey (2000)
    • Short notes:Chain Survey (2003)
    • What are transect and quadrant methods of vegetation survey and what is their usefulness and application? (2009)
    FOREST POLICY AND PROTECTION
    • How can you put new life and increase vigor in Forestry Sector? Suggest a few major strategic policy and legislative measures in this regard. (2000)
    • Short notes:Forest Policy (2003)
    • Discuss the role of various wood-based industries in achieving the goals of national forest policy and in accelerating poverty alleviation. (2006)
    • How many times forest policies in Pakistan have been revised and what new was added and adopted in each policy? Discuss the merits and demerits of current policy in the light of war on terrorism in forest epicenters in northern areas of Pakistan. (2010)
    • Short notes: Forest products protection (2010)
    FOREST BIOLOGY
    • What is meant by “Biological Diversity”? What are its various aspects? Why has it gained more importance recently? How will you promote and conserve it? (2003)
    • Short notes: Proper Use Factor (2007)
    • Short notes: Meiosis (2007)
    • Short notes: Chlorophyll Cells (2007)
    • Short notes: Standard Deviation (2007)
    • Short notes: PH (2007)
    • Short notes: Plane Tabling (2007)
    • Short notes: Vegetative Reproduction (2007)
    • Define Biological Diversity. Enlist the factors threatening Biological Diversity. Suggest measures to save and restore it. (2008)
    • Short notes: Bioengineering (2009)

    WILDLIFE
    • What measures shall you take to promote farm-friendly wildlife in agricultural ecosystem? What role can Agro forestry plan in this regard? What role is this farm-friendly wild-life expected to play in our farming system? (2000)
    • How will you attract capital and intellect from private sector for conserving natural habitats for the promotion of wildlife in various regions of the country ? in case you succeed in your efforts, in what specific ways will you like this newly generated capital and intellect to serve the cause of wildlife promotion in the country (2002)
    • Short notes:Fundamentals of Wildlife and National Park Management. (2003)
    • How wildlife play its role in propagation and conservation of vegetation species? What are essential features of wildlife sanctuaries? (2009)
    • Write the factors responsible for drastic decline of wildlife in Pakistan along with brief discussion of principles of sound wildlife management. Also give and justify your suggestions that how wildlife can be promoted in the country. (2011)
    NATURAL PARK MANAGEMENT
    • Short notes:Fundamentals of Wildlife and National Park Management. (2003)
    • There are more than 21 national Parks of Pakistan. Give detail of bio-ecology or the most important park. Discuss endangered species in this part and steps to be taken for amelioration or conditions of the parks to make it important in ecotourism. (2010)
    FOREST THINNING
    • Short notes: Thinnings (2001)
    • What is meant by Forest Thinning? What is its silvicultural and economic importance? (2003)
    GRAZING
    • Short notes: Silvo grazing (2000)
    • Short notes: Agro grazing (2001), 2011)
    • Short notes: Tethered Grazing (2003)
    • Short notes: Grazing Capacity (2007)
    • Livestock provides with many services to the mankind. Evaluate status of grazing animals of range lands in Pakistan. Discuss problems of grazers in these land and measures to overcome the problems in enhancing livestock production. What are prospects of increasing agro-grazing in Punjab, Pakistan. (2010)
    • Short notes: Forage Forestry/forest grazing (2011)
    • Define "Carrying capacity of a grazing land". How it is determined practically? Write he procedure stepwise. How many sheep can be allowed to graze on 500 hectares of grazing land per month if weight of green forage per quadrat was 2 kg and it contained 70 percent moisture contents? Size of the quadrat used for sampling was 1x1m2 and grazing allowed was 50 percent respectively. (2011)
    FOREST & FORESTRY IN PAKISTAN
    • Name various Forest Types of Pakistan. Describe in some detail the one which, in your opinion, has utmost watershed value. What changes shall you propose for its betterment? (2000)
    • Mangrove Forests of Pakistan and marine fauna. (2001)
    • Give a brief of the major recommendations of forest sector master plan of 1993. Will it lead Pakistan to a timber cum fuel surplus status by the year 2018 ? if not why ? (2002)
    • How should Govt. of Pakistan proceed to establish and promote Commercial Ranching in high potential sub-humid regions of the country? (2003)
    • Short notes:Major hazards to Pakistan’s forests. (2003)
    • How can Agro forestry invigorate our ailing Farming Systems? (2003)
    • How can Forestry come to the rescue of our degraded environment? (2003)
    • What are the prospects of enhancing recharge of under ground water reserves in various valleys of Baluchistan? What line of action will you propose? (2003)
    • Compare roles of PFI and of Agricultural Universities in popularizing forestry education and forestry consciousness in the country. (2003)
    • What are major environmental problems of Pakistan ? how could knowledge of forestry help in combating these problems ? (2005)
    • What are different temperate zones of Pakistan ? Relate different forest types of Pakistan to these temperature zones. Give correct binomial nomenclature of major species representing each forest type in this respect. (2005)
    • Describe selection coppice system. Which forest type of Pakistan is being worked out under this system and why? (2005)
    • How far are mangrove forests threatened by reduced downstream flow of Indus? Justify if such apprehension is a reality or a myth. (2006)
    • Define Forest Ecosystem. Discuss critically threatened ecosystems of Pakistan. (2007)
    • Name the most productive Range land of Pakistan. Describe its carrying capacity, rainfall, topography, vegetation and constraints. (2008)
    • Pakistan is a forest deficient country. Describe the key factors responsible for scarcity of forest resources in the country. (2008)
    • Discuss phytosociology and structure of Himalayan forests from different climatic zones Pakistan. (2010)
    • Arid wild lands in Pakistan (2010)
    • With respect to climate, vegetation, soil, wildlife, topography and other physiographic features, discuss briefly but comprehensively different types of forest found in Pakistan and also mention their contribution in wood production. (2011)
    • Analyze the present and future situation of forestry in Pakistan and discuss the reservations/reasons due to which farmer community is reluctant to adopt agro-forestry in Punjab. Support your answer with appropriate figures and sound arguments. (2011)
    FOREST REGENERATION
    • Compare natural and artificial regeneration of forest. Indicate latest development and trends. (2003)
    • Short notes: Uniform Shelterwood System (2003)
    ENVIRONMENT
    • Short notes: Phytoremediation (2009)
    • Short notes: Green house effect (2009), (2011)
    • Short notes: Forest and plantation (2009)
    • Short notes: Noise pollution and trees (2009)
    • Short notes: Carbon sequestration (2009)
    • Short notes: Natural heritage (2009)
    • Short notes: Environmental hazards (2009)
    • Short notes: Environmental Degradation and vegetation (2011)

    FOREST ECOSYSTEM
    • Define Forest Ecosystem. Discuss critically threatened ecosystems of Pakistan. (2007)
    • How are various range components related to each other? Briefly point out various losses of energy from range ecosystem and also write a note on corrective measures with reference to energy losses from a range ecosystem. (2011)
    • Short notes: Forest Ecosystem (2011)

    FOREST SIT
    E
    • Describe different approaches to identify quality of a Forest Site. Which one of the approaches is most practical and why? (2004)
    • Short notes: Evaluating Forest Sites (2006)
    AGE & GROWTH
    • How will you estimate age, height, diameter at breast height and true volume of a forest tree bole ? what is meant by CAI and how will you estimate it for a single tree ? (2002)
    • Differentiate between Rotation and Exploitable Age. Describe factors which determine the length of Rotation period. (2007)
    FOREST PRODUCTION
    • In the presence of severe constraints of nearly all vital resources required for implementing any massive afforestation programme, what alternatives do we have for increasing forest production in the country? Give outline of a workable strategy. (2006)
    • Short notes: Steps of enhancing forest production (2010)
    FOREST NURSERY
    • Define Forest nursery. What is the need of raising a forest nursery ? (2005)
    • Calculate the number of seeds required to be sown per square foot in a bed nursery to obtain 200 seedlings by using the following data.
    1. No. of seeds per pound = 19000
    2. No. of transplants per pound = 900 (2005)
    SOCIAL FORESTRY
    • What is meant by Social Forestry? Explain its various types being practiced in Agro-ecological zones of Punjab and Sindh. (2008)
    • Short notes: Social forestry (2010), (2011)
    TIMBER/WOOD

    Write an essay on efficient utilization of large timber in general and small logs in particular. (2000)
    Short notes: Wood seasoning. (2000)
    Short notes: Laminated Wood Products (2003)
    Short notes:Merchantable Timber (2008)
    Enlist qualities of good wood. Also discuss in detail different wood defects and their respective treatments. (2011)


    MISCELLANEOUS
    • Discuss briefly how Forestry can be integrated with other agricultural and non-agricultural land uses in the country.(2001)
    • How can you prolong effective life of Mangla Lake? Discuss if raising of dam height is an appropriate lasting solution of the problem
    • Length of a Felling Cycle is determined by Silvicultural and Economic parameters. Discuss each one with respect to Conifer forests. (2004)
    • Discuss in detail Interpretative Facilities that would enhance public enjoyment of Out-door Recreation. (2004)
    • What important factors will you consider while selecting tree species suitable for agro forestry? Please discuss. (2006)
    • Define Forest Increment/Growth. What is the need for information on Increment? Describe Stand Table Projection Method to predict Increment of a Forest Stand. (2007)
    • By using Von Mantle's formula, calculate Annual yield of a coniferous forest whose growing stock volume is 40,000 cft and rotation period of 150 years. What constant is used in this formula? (2008)
    • What is sustainability? What risk factors are involved in long term forestry projects? (2009)
    • Conservation of natural resources (Forests, rangelands and watershed areas) as a key of national food security. (2011)
    Differentiate: Forest Compartment and Forest Apartment (2004)
    Differentiate: Board and Hard Board (2004)
    Differentiate: Floating PB and Fixed PB (2004)
    Differentiate: Working Plan and Working Circle (2004)
    Differentiate: Quarter Girth formula and Cylindrical formula (2004)

    Short notes: Yield/Management Tables (2000)
    Short notes: Forest roads (2000)
    Short notes: Game Sanctuary (2001)
    Short notes: Succession (2002)
    Short notes: Completely randomized design (2002)
    Short notes: Quality class (2002)
    Short notes: Kas training (2002)
    Short notes: Savannah (2002)
    Short notes: Causeway (2002)
    Short notes: Fire line (2002)
    Short notes: Niche (2002)
    Short notes: Multiple Use Trees (2003)
    Short notes: Mimicry (2003)
    Short notes: Cause way (2003)
    Short notes: Game Reserve (2003), (2008)
    Short notes: Random Sampling (2003)
    Short notes: Behavioral Adaptations of Trees (2003)
    Short notes: Radio Frequency – Vacuum Seasoning (2003)
    Short notes: Pneumatophores (2004)
    Short notes: Point Sampling (2004)
    Short notes: Hydrosere (2004)
    Short notes: Discount rates (2004)
    Short notes: Seigniorage (2004)
    Short notes: Merit four pasture rotation system (2005)
    Short notes: Plotless sampling (2005)
    Short notes: Tree fallow (2005)
    Short notes: Nurse crop (2005)
    Short notes: Cover crop (2005)
    Short notes: Mulching (2006)
    Short notes: Soil Humus (2006)
    Short notes: Dieback of Dalbergia sissoo (2006)
    Short notes: Leguminous shrubs and trees (2006)
    Short notes:Browse line (2008)
    Short notes:Volume Table (2008)
    Short notes:Randomization (2008)
    Short notes:EC (2008)
    Short notes:Stubble Farming (2008)
    Short notes: Forestry and ecotourism (2011)
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